Volume 2, Issue 3 (2016)

Effect of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) on Performance and Emission of CI (Compression Ignition) Engine Fuelled with Blend
Hardik B Charola, Pranav B Makwana, Rishabh D Makwana
Page 1-6

Abstract— In this experimental study, the effect of ethanol/diesel with different mixing ratios (M10 and M20) along with different EGR rate (EGR10 and EGR15) was tested over to enhance the performance and emission of a single-cylinder direct injection compression-ignition engine at different compression ratio and the result were compared with the conventional engine The tests with/without methanol blends were performed on a hydraulic dynamometer while running the engine at the speed of 3000 rpm at different varying engine load, In this tests measure engine performance parameter like engine torque, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emission. After experimental study to measure engine torque, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emission in which BSFC was decrease and brake thermal efficiency was increase in performance parameter while in emission parameter CO, CO2, O2, HC, NOx and exhaust gas temperature were reduced in exhaust gas.

Keywords- compression ignition engine, exhaust gas recirculation methanol blend, engine performance, exhaust emission


Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Determination of Bioactive Phytocompounds in Chromolaena Odorata Leaf Extract
I E Otuokere, D O Okorie, K K Igwe, U J Matthew
Page 7-12

Abstract— Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used in the analysis of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed). The extract was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and concentrated at 40ºC in an oven. The concentrated extract was analyzed using GC-MS. The gas chromatogram showed the presence of ten compounds. The compounds are histamine (1.37%), 2-ethyl-2-hexen-1-al (3.91%), 1H-indole-4-carboxaldehyde (11.38%), p-cresidine (4.71%), hexadecanoic acid (17.37%), hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (14.17%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (13.53%), 2-ethylhex-3-enal (9.35%), 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (19.52%) and sarcosine, N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-, octyl ester (7.32%). The result showed that Chromolaena odorata contains pharmacological active compounds that may enhance its use as a traditional drug. Isolation and synthesis of these bioactive compounds is recommended.

Keywords— Chromolaena odorata, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, bioactive, extraction.


Handwritten Malayalam Character Recognition with a Novel Gradient based Feature Descriptor and a Comparative Study using SVM and ELM
Jomy John, Kannan Balakrishnan, Pramod K V
Page 13-20

Abstract— Handwritten character recognition is a fascinating area of research over a past few decades. In this paper, we propose a novel gradient based feature descriptor for extracting features from the character images and classifying these images using support vector machines (SVM) and extreme learning machines (ELM). Strength of quantized directional information from gradient image, extracted using orizontal, vertical and two diagonal filters are used as feature descriptor. The system compares the results obtained through SVM and ELM in terms of classification accuracy and time complexity. Experimental evaluation is carried out on a database of 14800 handwritten Malayalam characters of 74 classes. Empirical results convey that the feature descriptor is efficient in selecting salient features from the images. It also proves that SVM outperforms ELM in terms of classification accuracy. The learning time and classification time of ELM is extremely less compared to SVM.

Keywords— handwritten character recognition, gradient, Malayalam, extreme learning machine, support vector machine


Comparative Performance Analysis of Insulating Materials for Heater in Plastic Injection Molding Machine
Chirag R. Sanghani, Dharmesh C. Jayani
Page 21-24

Abstract- Injection molding is one of the most common plastic part manufacturing processes from both thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Nowadays injection molding has been a challenging process for manufacturers to make products as per customer requirements at minimum cost for existence in competitive market. Various researchers have tried to determine optimum process parameters affecting productivity, quality, and cost of production to accomplish this task. Heater is an important part of injection molding machine. As insulating material affects working of heater critically, use of proper insulation material can increase efficiency of heater which leads reduction in overall production cost. In this article, performance of different thermal insulating materials like ceramic, fiber glass, mineral fiber, glass wool and perlite were checked in terms of machine starting time for heater. It was found that combination of ceramic & glass wool material can retain more heat inside the heater & reduce machine starting time up to 6 minutes.

Keywords- Insulating material, Heater, Plastic injection molding machine, Performance


Characterization of Calopogunium mucunoides Ethanol Extract by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis
D O Okorie, I E Otuokere, K K Igwe, C Azubuike
Page 25-29

Abstract— Calopogunium mucunoides are forage leguminous plants that grows annually or perennially. The leaves of Calopogunium mucunoides are used for the management of ulcer. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used in the characterization of Calopogunium mucunoides. The extract was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and concentrated at 40ºC in an oven. The concentrated extract was analyzed using GC-MS analysis. The gas chromatogram showed the presence of twelve compounds. The suggested compounds are histamine (1.60%), 2-ethyl-2-hexen-1-al (2.45%), methenamine (1.86%), 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (6.26%), methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate (8.01%), hexadecanoic acid (6.18%), hexadecanoic acid, ethylester (9.13%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methylester (34.98%), 2-ethylhex-3-enal (16.13%), 1H-Indol-5-ol (2.73%), p-methoxybenzoic acid, octylester (3.97%), gamolenic acid (6.70%). Bioactivity studies showed that Calopogunium mucunoides is an acidifier, acidulant, histamine-Inhibitor, oligosaccharide provider, catechol-o-methyl-transferase-inhibitor, inhibitor of uric acid production, antidote (heavy metals) and previtamin-A provider. We hereby recommend the isolation and synthesis of these bioactive compounds for drug development.

Keywords— Calopogunium mucunoides, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, phytocompounds, ethanol, retention time